After taking an important step towards free movement with the residence agreement with Mercosur, the region is now moving towards a deepening of the regime and finally creating a South American citizenship. Since 2010, at least three regional organizations have debated this proposed supranational status: Mercosur itself, the CAN and the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR). The issue was also discussed at the South American Migration Conference (SACM), an annual meeting of the 12 countries in the region that adopted non-binding declarations. Finally, a newly created international organization, a Latin American trading bloc called the Pacific Alliance (the Alianza del Pacéfico), began to discuss the free movement of workers. CAN and Mercosur have both taken other parallel measures to facilitate mobility, including the recognition of national identity documents for crossing regional borders or special routes for airports for regional migrants. However, the total abolition of internal border controls, like the European Schengen area, has not taken place in the region. Personality has still not challenged the status sufficient to obtain, within the framework of regional policy, “inclusive internal” and “exclusive external” migration rights that deny access to third-country nationals (TTC). A comprehensive assessment of how the regional free movement policy leads us to this configuration would require a thorough assessment of the free movement rights of the NTCs, as well as the right-wing rights granted to those who can prove a regional identity as the basis of their rights. The granting of regional rights to free movement is not a European phenomenon. However, science and political discourse often frame EU policy as a masterpiece of a rare diversity of approaches that give regional nationals free movement rights.
The oscillations of Brexit and the wave of refugees to Europe in recent years have brought to the surface the tensions and uncertainties related to free movement rights in the EU, to which Ursula von der Leyen and a newly formed Commission will have to react in the near future.