“The collective agreement refers to a written or written agreement between an employer and a union that sets out the terms of employment or provisions relating to the rates of pay, working time or other working conditions of the workers.” In Finland, collective agreements are of general application. This means that a collective agreement in an industry becomes a general legal minimum for an individual`s employment contract, whether or not he or she is unionized. For this condition to apply, half of the workers in this sector must be unionized and therefore support the agreement. Nevertheless, a party`s insistence on a certain contract term is not necessarily an unfair labour practice. The NRL and the courts that review and enforce their orders are not prepared to replace their judgment with that of the parties and will not judge the content of the collective agreements (NLRB/American National Insurance Co., 343 U.S. 395, 72 P. Ct. 824, 96 L Ed. 1027 ).
Moreover, the use of “economic weapons”, such as pressure tactics, picketing and strikes to force bargaining concessions, is not necessarily a negotiation in bad faith (NLRB v. Insurance Agents` International Union, 361 U.S. 477, 80 P. Ct. 419, 4 L Ed. 2d 454 ). Congress passed the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) in 1935 (29 U.S.C.A. No. 151 and following) to establish the right of workers to collective bargaining and other group activities. The NLRA also created the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), a federal authority empowered to enforce the right to collective bargaining (No. 153).
The NLRA has been amended several times since 1935, including 1947, 1959 and 1974. The United States recognizes collective agreements   The union may negotiate with a single employer (which generally represents a company`s shareholders) or with a group of companies, depending on the country, in order to reach an industry-wide agreement. A collective agreement functions as an employment contract between an employer and one or more unions. Collective bargaining is conducted in negotiations between union representatives and employers (usually represented by management or, in some countries such as Austria, Sweden and the Netherlands, by an employers` organisation) on the conditions of employment of workers, such as wages, working time, working conditions, redress procedures and trade union rights and obligations. The parties often refer to the outcome of the collective agreement or collective agreement (AEC) negotiation. The American Federation of Labor was founded in 1886 and provided a large number of workers with unprecedented bargaining power.  The Railway Labor Act (1926) required employers to bargain collectively with unions. The Court found that the agency shop clause is valid when the fees are used by the union for “collective bargaining, contract management and complaint adjustment.” Once the NLRB has certified a union as an exclusive bargaining partner, the union has an irrefutable presumption of one-year majority support (River Dyeing – Finishing Corp.